Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758

AphiaID: 127186

Código Natura 2000: 1106

Salmão-do-atlântico

Animalia (Reino) > Chordata (Filo) > Vertebrata (Subfilo) > Gnathostomata (Superclasse) > Pisces (Superclasse-2) > Actinopterygii (Classe) > Salmoniformes (Ordem) > Salmonidae (Familia)

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Registos OMARE: 0
Registos OBIS: 2118

Descrição

Possui corpo fusiforme;

Apresenta uma pequena barbatana adiposa entre as barbatanas dorsal e caudal e as barbatanas pélvicas numa posição abdominal;

O maxilar superior termina ao nível do bordo posterior do olho.

Distribuição geográfica

Referido como praticamente inexistente ou ocasional no Plano de Ordenamento e Gestão do Parque Natural do Litoral Norte (POGPNLN, 2007).

Ocorre no Atlântico Norte, desde a região do Círculo Polar Ártico, Islândia, Mar Báltico, até ao norte da Península Ibérica e desde o Mar de Barents até à Nova Inglaterra.

Em Portugal há registos da sua presença nos rios Minho e Lima.

Habitat

É uma espécie anádroma, vive em água doce pelo menos durante os primeiros 2 ou 3 anos de vida, migrando depois para o mar. Na fase inicial da vida prefere rios de águas frias, relativamente grandes com extensas nascentes de fundo em cascalho. Numa fase posterior migram para o mar onde podem viver por 1 ou 2 anos antes de voltarem para a água doce. Geralmente, quando atingem a maturação sexual regressam aos locais de nascimento para se reproduzirem

 

Ecologia

Nos rios alimenta-se principalmente as larvas de insetos aquáticos e por vezes de insetos terrestres. No mar a sua dieta torna-se mais variada, abrangendo uma grande diversidade de organismos marinhos como algumas espécies de plâncton, crustáceos e peixes (ex.: arenque e sável, etc.). Antes da desova, o salmão deixa de se alimentar.

Os salmões reproduzem-se em rios com caudal permanente, geralmente caracterizados por águas bem oxigenadas, ausência de poluição orgânica ou inorgânica, com substrato de cascalho ou gravilha.

A desova ocorre no outono/inverno em locais cavados no substrato do rio. À medida que a época de desova se aproxima, os machos sofrem alterações na forma da cabeça. Esta torna-se mais alongada e desenvolve-se no extremo da mandíbula um gancho.

Características identificativas

  • Corpo fusiforme;
  • Pequena barbatana adiposa entre as barbatanas dorsal e caudal;
  • Barbatanas pélvicas ocupando uma posição abdominal;
  • Maxilar superior terminando ao nível do bordo posterior do olho;
  • Geralmente não possui pequenas malhas escuras abaixo da linha lateral.

Facilmente confundível com:

Estatuto de Conservação

Principais ameaças

As ameaças mais graves são as que incidem na fase continental do seu ciclo de vida, principalmente a construção de barragens e açudes.

Legislação aplicável:

EU Habitats Directive Annex II
EU Habitats Directive Annex V
Bern Convention Annex III
Revised Annex I of Resolution 6 (1998) of the Bern Convention listing the species requiring specific habitat conservation measures (year of revision 2011)
Initial OSPAR List of Threatened and/or Declining Species and Habitats (Reference Number: 2003-14) in addition to Annex V
Threatened and/or declining species in the Baltic Sea – HELCOM

Exploração comercial

Tamanho mínimo de captura – 550 mm.

Sinónimos

Salmo brevipes Smitt, 1883
Salmo caerulescens Schmidt, 1795
Salmo gloverii Girard, 1854
Salmo goedenii Bloch, 1784
Salmo gracilis Couch, 1865
Salmo hamatus Cuvier, 1829
Salmo hardinii Günther, 1866
Salmo nobilis Pallas, 1814
Salmo nobilis Olafsen, 1772
Salmo ocla Nilsson, 1832
Salmo renatus Lacepède, 1803
Salmo rilla Lacepède, 1803
Salmo salar biennis Berg, 1912
Salmo salar brevipes Smitt, 1882
Salmo salar brevipes natio relictus Berg, 1932
Salmo salar europaeus Payne, Child & Forrest, 1971
Salmo salar lacustris Hardin, 1862
Salmo salar nobilis Smitt, 1895
Salmo salar ouananiche McCarthy, 1894
Salmo salar saimensis Seppovaara, 1962
Salmo salar sebago Girard, 1853
Salmo salar tasmanicus Johnston, 1889
Salmo salmo Valenciennes, 1848
Salmo salmulus Walbaum, 1792
Salmo sebago Girard, 1853
Salmo strom Bonnaterre, 1788
Trutta relicta Malmgren, 1863
Trutta salar (Linnaeus, 1758)
Trutta salar relicta Malmgren, 1863

Informação Adicional

Pesquise mais sobre Salmo salar >  ~ ICNF   ~ Fishbase ~ EUNIS

Referências Internacionais

Manual Prático De Identificação de Peixes Ósseos da Costa Continental Portuguesa – IPMA (2015)

Renzi, V. 1999. “Salmo salar” (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed December 19, 2018 at https://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Salmo_salar/

World Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1996. Salmo salar. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 1996: e.T19855A9026693. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T19855A9026693.en

original description Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. ii, 824 pp., available online at https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.542 [details]

additional source Eschmeyer, W. N.; Fricke, R.; van der Laan, R. (eds). (2017). Catalog of Fishes: Genera, Species, References. Electronic version., available online at http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/Ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp [details]

additional source Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2017). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. , available online at http://www.fishbase.org [details]

basis of record van der Land, J.; Costello, M.J.; Zavodnik, D.; Santos, R.S.; Porteiro, F.M.; Bailly, N.; Eschmeyer, W.N.; Froese, R. (2001). Pisces, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 357-374 [details]

additional source Scott, W.B.; Scott, M.G. (1988). Atlantic fishes of Canada. Canadian Bulletin of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. No. 219. 731 pp. [details]

additional source Muller, Y. (2004). Faune et flore du littoral du Nord, du Pas-de-Calais et de la Belgique: inventaire. [Coastal fauna and flora of the Nord, Pas-de-Calais and Belgium: inventory]. Commission Régionale de Biologie Région Nord Pas-de-Calais: France. 307 pp., available online at http://www.vliz.be/imisdocs/publications/145561.pdf [details]

additional source Dyntaxa. (2013). Swedish Taxonomic Database. Accessed at www.dyntaxa.se [15-01-2013]., available online at http://www.dyntaxa.se [details]

additional source Lutaenko, K.A.; Furota, T.; Nakayama; S.; Shin, K.; Xu, J. (2013). Atlas of Marine Invasive Species in the NOWPAP Region. Beijing: NOWPAP DINRAC (Northwest Pacific Action Plan, Data and Information Network Regional Center). 189 pp. [details]

additional source King, C.M.; Roberts, C.D.; Bell, B.D.; Fordyce, R.E.; Nicoll, R.S.; Worthy, T.H.; Paulin, C.D.; Hitchmough, R.A.; Keyes, I.W.; Baker, A.N.; Stewart, A.L.; Hiller, N.; McDowall, R.M.; Holdaway, R.N.; McPhee, R.P.; Schwarzhans, W.W.; Tennyson, A.J.D.; Rust, S.; Macadie, I. (2009). Phylum Chordata: lancelets, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia. pp. 431-554. [details]

context source (HKRMS) Leung KMY., Chu JCW. & Wu RSS. (2003).Reducing nitrogen pollution loading from fish farming by changing feeding practices: an example from Hong Kong. In: Morton B, editor. Proceedings of an International Workshop Reunion Conference, Hong Kong: Perspectives on Marine Environment Change in Hong Kong and Southern China, 1977-2001. Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong. pp 543-554. [details]

context source (Schelde) Maris, T.; Beauchard, O.; Van Damme, S.; Van den Bergh, E.; Wijnhoven, S.; Meire, P. (2013). Referentiematrices en Ecotoopoppervlaktes Annex bij de Evaluatiemethodiek Schelde-estuarium Studie naar “Ecotoopoppervlaktes en intactness index”. Monitor Taskforce Publication Series, 2013-01. NIOZ: Yerseke. 35 pp. [details]

additional source Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2018). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. , available online at http://www.fishbase.org [details]

context source (HKRMS) Leung KMY., Chu JCW. & Wu RSS. (2003).Reducing nitrogen pollution loading from fish farming by changing feeding practices: an example from Hong Kong. In: Morton B, editor. Proceedings of an International Workshop Reunion Conference, Hong Kong: Perspectives on Marine Environment Change in Hong Kong and Southern China, 1977-2001. Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong. pp 543-554. [details]

additional source Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2018). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. , available online at http://www.fishbase.org [details]

context source (HKRMS) Leung KMY., Chu JCW. & Wu RSS. (2003).Reducing nitrogen pollution loading from fish farming by changing feeding practices: an example from Hong Kong. In: Morton B, editor. Proceedings of an International Workshop Reunion Conference, Hong Kong: Perspectives on Marine Environment Change in Hong Kong and Southern China, 1977-2001. Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong. pp 543-554. [details]

additional source Eschmeyer, W. N.; Fricke, R.; van der Laan, R. (eds). (2018). Catalog of Fishes: Genera, Species, References. Electronic version., available online at http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/Ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp [details]

additional source Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2018). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. , available online at http://www.fishbase.org [details]

context source (HKRMS) Leung KMY., Chu JCW. & Wu RSS. (2003).Reducing nitrogen pollution loading from fish farming by changing feeding practices: an example from Hong Kong. In: Morton B, editor. Proceedings of an International Workshop Reunion Conference, Hong Kong: Perspectives on Marine Environment Change in Hong Kong and Southern China, 1977-2001. Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong. pp 543-554. [details]

additional source Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2018). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. version (10/2018)., available online at http://www.fishbase.org [details]

context source (HKRMS) Leung KMY., Chu JCW. & Wu RSS. (2003).Reducing nitrogen pollution loading from fish farming by changing feeding practices: an example from Hong Kong. In: Morton B, editor. Proceedings of an International Workshop Reunion Conference, Hong Kong: Perspectives on Marine Environment Change in Hong Kong and Southern China, 1977-2001. Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong. pp 543-554. [details]

additional source Fricke, R., Eschmeyer, W. N. & Van der Laan, R. (eds). (2019). Catalog of Fishes: Genera, Species, References. Electronic version accessed dd mmm 2019., available online at http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/Ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp [details]

original description Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata [10th revised edition], vol. 1: 824 pp. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. , available online at https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.542 [details]

additional source Fricke, R., Eschmeyer, W. N. & Van der Laan, R. (eds). (2019). Catalog of Fishes: Genera, Species, References. Electronic version accessed dd mmm 2019., available online at http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/Ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp [details]

additional source Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2019). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. version (02/2019)., available online at http://www.fishbase.org [details]

context source (HKRMS) Leung KMY., Chu JCW. & Wu RSS. (2003).Reducing nitrogen pollution loading from fish farming by changing feeding practices: an example from Hong Kong. In: Morton B, editor. Proceedings of an International Workshop Reunion Conference, Hong Kong: Perspectives on Marine Environment Change in Hong Kong and Southern China, 1977-2001. Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong. pp 543-554. [details]

Última atualização: 02 Jul. 2019
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