Sterna hirundo Linnaeus, 1758

AphiaID: 137162

common tern

Animalia (Kingdom) > Chordata (Phylum) > Vertebrata (Subphylum) > Gnathostomata (Superclass) > Tetrapoda (Superclass-2) > Aves (Class) > Charadriiformes (Order) > Laridae (Family)

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Conservation Status

Conservation status and major threats

International References

Sepe, K. 2002. “Sterna hirundo” (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed November 30, 2018 at https://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Sterna_hirundo/

BirdLife International. 2018. Sterna hirundo. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T22694623A132562687. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018 2.RLTS.T22694623A132562687.en

original description Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. ii, 824 pp., available online at https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.542 [details]

additional source Cattrijsse, A.; Vincx, M. (2001). Biodiversity of the benthos and the avifauna of the Belgian coastal waters: summary of data collected between 1970 and 1998. Sustainable Management of the North Sea. Federal Office for Scientific, Technical and Cultural Affairs: Brussel, Belgium. 48 pp. [details]

basis of record van der Land, J. (2001). Tetrapoda, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 375-376 [details]

additional source Banks, R.C., R.W. McDiarmid, and A.L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Resource Publication No. 166. 79 p. [details]

additional source Robbins, C. S. (1983). Golden field Guide to Birds of North America. Golden press. 360p. [details]

additional source Grand Manan Whale and Seabird Research Station., available online at http://www.gmwsrs.org/main.htm [details]

additional source Dyntaxa. (2013). Swedish Taxonomic Database. Accessed at www.dyntaxa.se [15-01-2013]., available online at http://www.dyntaxa.se [details]

additional source Muller, Y. (2004). Faune et flore du littoral du Nord, du Pas-de-Calais et de la Belgique: inventaire. [Coastal fauna and flora of the Nord, Pas-de-Calais and Belgium: inventory]. Commission Régionale de Biologie Région Nord Pas-de-Calais: France. 307 pp., available online at http://www.vliz.be/imisdocs/publications/145561.pdf [details]

additional source Urban, E.K., C.H. Fry & S. Keith (1986). The Birds of Africa, Volume II. Academic Press, London. [details]

additional source Squires, H.J. 1990. Decapod Crustacea of the Atlantic coast of Canada. Canadian Bulletin of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 221. 532 p. [details]

additional source Vanner, M. 2003. The encyclopedia of North American birds. Paragon Publishing. Bath. 383 p. [details]

additional source Peterson, R.T. and V.M. Peterson. 2002. A field guide to the birds of eastern and central North America. Fifth Edition. Peterson Field Guide Series. Houghton Mifflin Company. New York. 427 p. [details]

additional source Linkletter, L. E. (1977). A checklist of marine fauna and flora of the Bay of Fundy. Huntsman Marine Laboratory, St. Andrews, N.B. 68: p. [details]

additional source King, C.M.; Roberts, C.D.; Bell, B.D.; Fordyce, R.E.; Nicoll, R.S.; Worthy, T.H.; Paulin, C.D.; Hitchmough, R.A.; Keyes, I.W.; Baker, A.N.; Stewart, A.L.; Hiller, N.; McDowall, R.M.; Holdaway, R.N.; McPhee, R.P.; Schwarzhans, W.W.; Tennyson, A.J.D.; Rust, S.; Macadie, I. (2009). Phylum Chordata: lancelets, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia. pp. 431-554. [details]

additional source Gallardo, J. C., V. Macías, and E. Velarde. 2009. Birds (Vertebrata: Aves) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 1321–1342 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College Station, Texas. [details]

additional source Liu J.Y. [Ruiyu] (ed.). (2008). Checklist of marine biota of China seas. China Science Press. 1267 pp. [details]

context source (HKRMS) Hong Kong Offshore Wind Farm in SoutheasternWaters. EIA report. [details]

context source (Schelde) Maris, T.; Beauchard, O.; Van Damme, S.; Van den Bergh, E.; Wijnhoven, S.; Meire, P. (2013). Referentiematrices en Ecotoopoppervlaktes Annex bij de Evaluatiemethodiek Schelde-estuarium Studie naar “Ecotoopoppervlaktes en intactness index”. Monitor Taskforce Publication Series, 2013-01. NIOZ: Yerseke. 35 pp. [details]

additional source Peterson, R.T.; Peterson, V.M. (2002). A field guide to the birds of eastern and central North America. Fifth Edition. Peterson Field Guide Series. Houghton Mifflin Company. New York. 427 p. [details]

additional source Urban, E.K., C.H. Fry & S. Keith (1986). The Birds of Africa, Volume II. Academic Press, London. [details]

additional source Gallardo, J. C., V. Macías, and E. Velarde. 2009. Birds (Vertebrata: Aves) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 1321–1342 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College Station, Texas. [details]

additional source Urban, E.K., C.H. Fry & S. Keith (1986). The Birds of Africa, Volume II. Academic Press, London. [details]

additional source Gallardo, J. C., V. Macías, and E. Velarde. 2009. Birds (Vertebrata: Aves) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 1321–1342 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College Station, Texas. [details]

additional source Squires, H. J. (1990). Decapod Crustacea of the Atlantic coast of Canada. Canadian Bulletin of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 221: 532 p., available online at http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/library/116743.pdf [details]

additional source Urban, E.K., C.H. Fry & S. Keith (1986). The Birds of Africa, Volume II. Academic Press, London. [details]

additional source Gallardo, J. C., V. Macías, and E. Velarde. 2009. Birds (Vertebrata: Aves) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 1321–1342 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College Station, Texas. [details]

context source (BeRMS 2020) Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO). European Seabirds at Sea – data collected by the Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO). INBO Seabird distribution data (all trips). [details]

additional source Vanner, M. (2003). The encyclopedia of North American birds. Paragon Publishing. 1-383. [details]

original description Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata [10th revised edition], vol. 1: 824 pp. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. , available online at https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.542 [details]

additional source Liu, J.Y. [Ruiyu] (ed.). (2008). Checklist of marine biota of China seas. China Science Press. 1267 pp. [details]

additional source King, C.M.; Roberts, C.D.; Bell, B.D.; Fordyce, R.E.; Nicoll, R.S.; Worthy, T.H.; Paulin, C.D.; Hitchmough, R.A.; Keyes, I.W.; Baker, A.N.; Stewart, A.L.; Hiller, N.; McDowall, R.M.; Holdaway, R.N.; McPhee, R.P.; Schwarzhans, W.W.; Tennyson, A.J.D.; Rust, S.; Macadie, I. (2009). Phylum Chordata: lancelets, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals. in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia. pp. 431-554. [details]

Last update: 14 Nov. 2017
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